The 26S Proteasome is an ATP-dependent protease complex responsible for degrading many important cell regulators in plants and animals, especially those conjugated with multiple ubiquitins.
Multiple Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are conserved throughout eukaryotes whose functions are largely unknown, examples include: Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO), Membrane-anchored Ub fold (MUB), homology to Ub (HUB), Ub-fold modifier (UFM), and Ubiquitin related modifier (URM).
Autophagy (“self-eating”) is a bulk degradation process in eukaryotic cells. It is induced during starvation and certain types of cell death, and defective autophagy is associated with various human diseases.
Phytochromes are red/far-red light abosorbing molecules that play an important role in plant development.